Category Archives: Research

Crowdfunding biodiversity conservation

Authors: Eduardo Gallo-Cajiao, Carla Archibald, Rachel Friedman, Richard A Fuller, Edward T Game, Tiffany Morrison, and Euan G Ritchie

Published in: Conservation Biology


Raising funds is critical for conserving biodiversity and hence so too is scrutinizing emerging financial mechanisms that might help achieve this goal. In this context, anecdotal evidence indicates crowdfunding is being used to support a variety of activities needed for biodiversity conservation, yet its magnitude and allocation remain largely unknown.

We conducted a global analysis to help address this knowledge gap, based on empirical data from conservation‐focused projects extracted from crowdfunding platforms. For each project, we determined the funds raised, date, country of implementation, proponent characteristics, activity type, biodiversity realm, and target taxa.

We identified 72 relevant platforms and 577 conservation‐focused projects that have raised US$4,790,634 since 2009. Whilst proponents were based in 38 countries, projects were delivered across 80 countries, indicating a potential mechanism of resource mobilization. Proponents were from non‐governmental organizations (35%), universities (30%), or were freelancers (26%). Most projects were for research (40%), persuasion (31%), and on‐ground actions (21%). Projects have focused primarily on species (57.7%) and terrestrial ecosystems (20.3%), and less on marine (8.8%) and freshwater ecosystems (3.6%). Projects have focused on 208 species, including a disproportionate number of threatened bird and mammal species.

Crowdfunding for biodiversity conservation has now become a global phenomenon and presents signals for potential expansion, despite possible pitfalls. Opportunities arise from its spatial amplifying effect, steady increase over time, inclusion of Cinderella species, adoption by multiple actors, and funding of a range of activities beyond research.

Our study paves the way for further research on key questions, such as campaign success rates, effectiveness, and drivers of adoption. Even though the capital input of crowdfunding so far has been modest compared to other conservation finance mechanisms, its contribution goes beyond funding research and providing capital.

Embraced with due care, crowdfunding could potentially become an increasingly important financial mechanism for biodiversity conservation.

Gallo-Cajiao E, Archibald C, Friedman R, Steven R, Fuller RA, Game ET, Morrison TH, Ritchie EG (2018) Crowdfunding biodiversity conservation, Conservation Biology PDF DOI

Animal recognition and identification with deep convolutional neural networks for automated wildlife monitoring

Authors: Hung Nguyen, Sarah J Maclagan, Tu Dinh Nguyen, Thin Nguyen, Paul Flemons, Kylie Andrews, Euan G Ritchie, and Dinh Phung

Published in: 2017 IEEE International Conference on Data Science and Advanced Analytics


Efficient and reliable monitoring of wild animals in their natural habitats is essential to inform conservation and management decisions. Automatic covert cameras or “camera traps” are being an increasingly popular tool for wildlife monitoring due to their effectiveness and reliability in collecting data of wildlife unobtrusively, continuously and in large volume. However, processing such a large volume of images and videos captured from camera traps manually is extremely expensive, time-consuming and also monotonous. This presents a major obstacle to scientists and ecologists to monitor wildlife in an open environment.

Leveraging on recent advances in deep learning techniques in computer vision, we propose in this paper a framework to build automated animal recognition in the wild, aiming at an automated wildlife monitoring system. In particular, we use a single-labeled dataset from Wildlife Spotter project, done by citizen scientists, and the state-of-the-art deep convo- lutional neural network architectures, to train a computational system capable of filtering animal images and identifying species automatically.

Our experimental results achieved an accuracy at 96.6% for the task of detecting images containing animal, and 90.4% for identifying the three most common species among the set of images of wild animals taken in South-central Victoria, Australia, demonstrating the feasibility of building fully automated wildlife observation. This, in turn, can therefore speed up research findings, construct more efficient citizen science- based monitoring systems and subsequent management decisions, having the potential to make significant impacts to the world of ecology and trap camera images analysis.

Nguyen H, Maclagan SJ, Nguyen TD, Nguyen T, Flemons P, Andrews K, Ritchie EG, Phung D (2017) Animal recognition and identification with deep convolutional neural networks for automated wildlife monitoring, 2017 IEEE International Conference on Data Science and Advanced Analytics PDF DOI 

Don’t judge habitat on its novelty: Assessing the value of novel habitats for an endangered mammal in a peri-urban landscape

Authors: Sarah J Maclagan, Terry Coates, and Euan G Ritchie

Published in: Biological Conservation, volume 223 (July 2018)


Novel ecosystems are increasingly common worldwide, particularly in areas heavily impacted by humans such as urban and peri-urban landscapes. Consequently, interest in their potential contribution to biodiversity conservation is growing, including their ability to sustain populations of threatened species. However, few studies have explored whether novel habitats can support viable populations over time and how they compare to less modified, remnant habitats.

We investigated the capacity for novel habitats to support an endangered mammal, the southern brown bandicoot (Isoodon obesulus obesulus: Peramelidae), in a highly-modified landscape near Australia’s second largest city, Melbourne. We compared bandicoot abundance and body condition between five novel and two remnant sites, and examined whether novel sites support residency and key demographic processes necessary for bandicoot population persistence. We found that bandicoot abundance was higher at novel than remnant sites, with the highest abundance at the novel site with the most urbanised surroundings. Female body condition was similar between novel and remnant sites. The majority of bandicoots at novel sites were resident, and breeding activity, recruitment of first-year adults, and survival of mature adults were observed at all novel sites.

Our results demonstrate the potential significance of novel habitats for conserving threatened species within heavily-modified landscapes, and encourage us not to judge the quality of habitats on their novelty alone. Broadening our appreciation of the potential value of novel ecosystems could increase off-reserve species conservation opportunities, a key priority within the context of the Anthropocene and unprecedented global change and biodiversity loss.

Maclagan SJ, Coates T, Ritchie EG (2018) Don’t judge habitat on its novelty: Assessing the value of novel habitats for an endangered mammal in a peri-urban landscape, Biological Conservation PDF DOI 

Testing the assumptions of the pyrodiversity begets biodiversity hypothesis for termites in semi-arid Australia

Authors: Hayley Davis, Euan G Ritchie, Sarah Avitabile, Tim Doherty, and Dale G Nimmo

Published in: The Royal Society Open Science (April 2018)


Fire shapes the composition and functioning of ecosystems globally. In many regions, fire is actively managed to create diverse patch mosaics of fire-ages under the assumption that a diversity of post-fire-age classes will provide a greater variety of habitats, thereby enabling species with differing habitat requirements to coexist, and enhancing species diversity (the pyrodiversity begets biodiversity hypothesis). However, studies provide mixed support for this hypothesis.

Here, using termite communities in a semi-arid region of southeast Australia, we test four key assumptions of the pyrodiversity begets biodiversity hypothesis:

  1. that fire shapes vegetation structure over sufficient time frames to influence species’ occurrence,
  2. that animal species are linked to resources that are themselves shaped by fire and that peak at different times since fire,
  3. that species’ probability of occurrence or abundance peaks at varying times since fire, and
  4. that providing a diversity of fire-ages increases species diversity at the landscape scale.

Termite species and habitat elements were sampled in 100 sites across a range of fire-ages, nested within 20 landscapes chosen to represent a gradient of low to high pyrodiversity. We used regression modelling to explore relationships between termites, habitat and fire.

Fire affected two habitat elements (coarse woody debris and the cover of woody vegetation) that were associated with the probability of occurrence of three termite species and overall species richness, thus supporting the first two assumptions of the pyrodiversity hypothesis. However, this did not result in those species or species richness being affected by fire history per se. Consequently, landscapes with a low diversity of fire histories had similar numbers of termite species as landscapes with high pyrodiversity.

Our work suggests that encouraging a diversity of fire-ages for enhancing termite species richness in this study region is not necessary.

Davis H, Ritchie EG, Avitabile S, Doherty T, Nimmo DG (2018) Testing the assumptions of the pyrodiversity begets biodiversity hypothesis for termites in semi-arid Australia, Royal Society Open Science PDF DOI 

Human-modified habitats facilitate forest-dwelling populations of an invasive predator, Vulpes vulpes

Authors: Bronwyn A Hradsky, Alan Robley, Ray Alexander, Euan G Ritchie, Alan York, and Julian Di Stefano

Published in: Scientific Reports


Invasive and over-abundant predators pose a major threat to biodiversity and often benefit from human activities. Effective management requires understanding predator use of human-modified habitats (including resource subsidies and disturbed environments), and individual variation within populations.

We investigated selection for human-modified habitats by invasive red foxes, Vulpes vulpes, within two predominantly forested Australian landscapes. We predicted that foxes would select for human-modified habitats in their range locations and fine-scale movements, but that selection would vary between individuals. We GPS-tracked 19 foxes for 17–166 days; ranges covered 33 to >2500 ha.

Approximately half the foxes selected for human-modified habitats at the range scale, with some ‘commuting’ more than five kilometres to farmland or townships at night. Two foxes used burnt forest intensively after a prescribed fire. In their fine-scale nocturnal movements, most foxes selected for human-modified habitats such as reservoirs, forest edges and roads, but there was considerable individual variation. Native fauna in fragmented and disturbed habitats are likely to be exposed to high rates of fox predation, and anthropogenic food resources may subsidise fox populations within the forest interior.

Coordinating fox control across land-tenures, targeting specific landscape features, and limiting fox access to anthropogenic resources will be important for biodiversity conservation.

Hradsky BA, Robley A, Alexander R, Ritchie EG, York, Di Stefano J (2017) Human-modified habitats facilitate forest-dwelling populations of an invasive predator, Vulpes vulpes. Scientific Reports PDF DOI 

Honours projects for 2018

Looking for an exciting honours project in ecology? I have three openings for 2018.

I also welcome other project ideas from students if they fit with my expertise and research priorities.

To find out more, please refer to the Deakin University website: Honours in Life and Environmental Sciences, or contact me.

Fox, cat and fire interactions in the Grampians National Park

Supervisor: Dr Euan Ritchie

External and co-supervisors: Dr Dale Nimmo (Charles Sturt University) and Dr Tim Doherty, (Deakin University)

Start date: February 2018

Foxes are invasive predators in the Grampians. Image credit: Dan Derrett via Flickr

This project, a research partnership between Parks Victoria and Deakin University, will examine fox and cat distribution across the Grampians National Park. Specifically, it will aim to examine:

  1. The effect of fire on fox and cat habitat use.
  2. Fox diet.

Experience with using R and/or ArcGIS will be advantageous but is not essential. A manual driver’s licence is essential for this project.

The ecological role of eastern barred bandicoots in a newly established island population

Principal Supervisor: Dr Euan Ritchie

External and co-supervisors: Dr Duncan Sutherland (Phillip Island Nature Parks) and Dr Amy Coetsee (Zoos Victoria)

Start date: February or July 2018

Eastern barred bandicoots persist only in captivity or within fox-free nature reserves. Image credit JJ Harrison via Wikimedia Commons

Mainland eastern barred bandicoots (EBBs) are listed as extinct in the wild, persisting only in captivity or within fox-free fenced reserves.

Phillip Island Nature Parks, together with Zoos Victoria and the Eastern Barred Bandicoot Recovery Team, have established an EBB population on fox-free Churchill Island, adjacent to Phillip Island.

This project forms part of a broader effort to bring EBBs back from the brink of extinction and off the threatened species list. We seek an honours student for a project to experimentally determine the role of EBBs as ecological engineers, in particular their effect on invertebrate communities.

Experience with using R and/or ArcGIS will be advantageous but is not essential. Field accommodation on Phillip Island is available.

Large herbivore impacts on alpine ecosystems

Principal Supervisor: Dr Euan Ritchie

External and co-supervisors: Professor Don Driscoll and Dr Tim Doherty (Deakin University)

Start date: July 2018

Large, introduced herbivores, such as deer, threaten alpine ecosystems. Image credit: Rexness via Flickr

Large feral herbivores, such as horses and deer, threaten alpine ecosystems through overgrazing and trampling of vegetation, spreading weeds, elevated nutrients, and breaking down stream banks and reducing water quality.

This project will examine the impacts of large herbivores on alpine vegetation communities, and in turn on smaller, native vertebrate species.

Experience with using R and/or ArcGIS will be advantageous, but is not essential. A manual driver’s licence is essential for this project.